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London, For John Brotherton, 1732, Hardcover, 8vo,  xi  240pp. Contemporary sprinkled calf rebacked with five raised bands and contrasting spine label bearing gilt titles, armorial crest pasted to front pastedown, endpapers a little browned else internally clean and bright. A very nice copy. ESTC: T59021
Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733) is most famous as the author of "The Fable of the Bees" (1714) in which he dissects human nature and concludes that the human vices, as much as any virtues, are essential to a well ordered society. Mandeville claimed that he wasn't recommending vice to individuals, only observing that many of the values of the society in which he lived, such as the increase of trade, imperial ambition, even politeness, were incompatible with virtue and innocence. A second part of the Fable (1729) was followed by this work, in which Mandeville expands on his thinking about 'honour' as a sort of perverted false courage. While true courage might be a virtue, honour has its roots in pride and shame and so is seen as a useful device in the socialisation of humans. Mandeville's anti-clericalism is revealed in his account of how a perverted version of the truly peaceful doctrine of Christianity, making use of concepts of honour and duty, can be used to motivate soldiers.